|Year : 2018 | Volume
| Issue : 4 | Page : 248-252
Effect of telenursing on levels of depression and anxiety in caregivers of patients with stroke: A randomized clinical trial
Maryam Goudarzian1, Masoud Fallahi-Khoshknab1, Asghar Dalvandi1, Ahmad Delbari2, Akbar Biglarian3
1 Department of Nursing, University of Social Welfare and Rehabilitation Sciences, Tehran, Iran
2 Iranian Research Center on Aging, University of Social Welfare and Rehabilitation, Tehran, Iran
3 Department of Biostatistics, Social Determinants of Health Research Center, University of Social Welfare and Rehabilitation Sciences, Tehran, Iran
|Date of Web Publication||25-Jun-2018|
Department of Nursing, University of Social Welfare and Rehabilitation Sciences, Tehran
Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None
Background: Telenursing is a low-cost, highly accessible method that can lead to increased awareness on the principles of care, and may eventually help reduce the stress experienced by caregivers of patients with stroke. The present study aimed to investigate the effect of telenursing through phone consultation on the levels of depression and anxiety in family caregivers of patients with stroke. Materials and Methods: This was a randomized clinical trial including 152 caregivers of stroke patients discharged from Mohammad Vase'ee Hospital in Sabzevar in 2016. Participants were recruited through purposive sampling method and were randomly assigned to control (n = 76) and intervention (n = 76) groups. The intervention consisted of 32 sessions of phone consultation. Research tools included demographic characteristics form, needs assessment questionnaire, Beck Depression Inventory, and Beck Anxiety Inventory. Data were analyzed with independent t test using SPSS, version 23. Results: Mean (SD) post-intervention anxiety scores for the intervention and the control group were statistically significant (t = 3.51, p = 0.001). However, the difference in mean depression scores after intervention was not significant (p = 0.70). Conclusions: Telenursing can be employed to facilitate the care of chronic patients as well as increase the psychological well-being of the caregivers through providing practical and specialized information.
Keywords: Anxiety, caregivers, depression, stroke, telenursing
|How to cite this article:|
Goudarzian M, Fallahi-Khoshknab M, Dalvandi A, Delbari A, Biglarian A. Effect of telenursing on levels of depression and anxiety in caregivers of patients with stroke: A randomized clinical trial. Iranian J Nursing Midwifery Res 2018;23:248-52
|How to cite this URL:|
Goudarzian M, Fallahi-Khoshknab M, Dalvandi A, Delbari A, Biglarian A. Effect of telenursing on levels of depression and anxiety in caregivers of patients with stroke: A randomized clinical trial. Iranian J Nursing Midwifery Res [serial online] 2018 [cited 2022 Dec 4];23:248-52. Available from: https://www.ijnmrjournal.net/text.asp?2018/23/4/248/234940
| Introduction|| |
Stroke presents a major health problem in modern societies, being the second cause of mortality for people older than 60 years and the fifth leading cause of death in people aged 15–59 years old in the world., The incidence rate of first-time stroke in Iran is 139 per 100,000 people that today we see an increasing number of these individuals due to the advancement of science in the field of diagnosis and treatment of diseases., According to the World Health Organization, after discharge from hospital, about 80% of patients with stroke will depend on family members and their caregivers for their daily activities. In addition to the mortality caused by the stroke, stroke-associated disabilities place a tremendous burden on economy, amounting to approximately $57 billion a year.,
Meanwhile, informal caregivers play an important role in home care. However, if caregivers do not have enough information about the disease, how to care and support the patients at different stages of diagnosis, treatment and its side effects, they may not be successful in providing support and care and may even compromise the social health of the patients and their families. Hence, due to the direct effects of caregiver issues on the family as well as the course of treatment of patients, health care systems pay more attention to home care and addressing the needs and problems of caregivers.
Telenursing, as one of the main services of caring for chronic patients at home, refers to the provision of nursing services through the use of telecommunications technologies such as telephone, computer, telemonitoring tools and Internet. The use of this technology leads to rapid access of the patient to better services for lower costs, easy access to the most appropriate professional skills, and an all-round increase in quality of health service provision. Hence, given the chronic nature of the stroke, providing support for family members would increase their efficiency in caring.
Few studies have looked at the problems of caregivers of patients with stroke,, and no one has addressed the issue of depression and anxiety in caregivers of patients with stroke. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the effect of telenursing through phone consultation on levels of depression and anxiety in caregivers of patients with stroke.
| Materials and Methods|| |
This study is a clinical trial registered in Iran's Clinical Trials Registration System (IRCT2015080423493N1). Participants were recruited from a list of elderly patients with stroke in the period of July–December 2016, provided by Mohammad Vase'ee Hospital in Sabzevar city. The number of participants in each group was calculated to be 76, based on α = 0.05, power = 0.80, and a variance of 60 (equivalent to 3.5 unit decrease in anxiety score). One hundred fifty-four people were selected through purposive sampling and informed written consent was obtained. The inclusion criteria were having no cognitive impairments (dementia, delirium), speaking Farsi, being able to communicate, having no history of psychiatric hospitalization and psychiatric treatment, and having no experience of mourning during the past 6 months. People who attended psychotherapy sessions were also excluded from the study. Thus, 152 participants were randomized to an intervention and a control group by using a four-block design [Figure 1].
Data were collected using demographic characteristics form, needs assessment questionnaire, Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI). The researcher-made needs assessment questionnaire comprised 43 items on six components: knowledge of health support, social support, emotional support, specialized support, instrumental support, and treatment involvement. Clarity and relevance of items were evaluated and verified by ten experts in the field by using a 4-item Likert scale. The total score for this questionnaire ranges from 0 to 43, with a higher score corresponding to greater needs. Both Beck's Depression and Anxiety inventories include 21 items in a 4-degree Likert scale (0 to 3 score) that evaluate the symptoms of depression and anxiety over the past two weeks. Total score for each inventory ranges from 0 to 63. In BDI, a score of 0–9 represents no depression, 10–18 mild depression, 19–29 moderate depression, and 30–63 severe depression. In BAI, a score of 0–7 would represent partial anxiety, 8–15 mild anxiety, 16–25 moderate anxiety, and 26–63 severe anxiety. Cronbach's alpha coefficient for BDI and BAI are 0.93 and 0.92, respectively.,
Intervention for the intervention group began as a preliminary meeting with participants' families to explain the counseling procedure and provide instructions regarding how to fill out the questionnaires and reach out to the consultant (i.e., the researcher). Based on the caregivers' needs assessed through aforementioned questionnaire, telephone consultation with the nurse was performed every other day in the first month, and twice a week in the second and third months (32 sessions in total). Calling time was between 8 AM and 8 PM; however, participants could call in at other times in case of emergency. Also, instructions as to hypoglycemia, hypertension and hypotension symptoms, skin care, diet, dressing change, changing the patient's position, etc., were provided in these calls, if necessary. The control group continued with their usual care and was seen by their physician every month to extend their medications. After completion of the intervention, post-test data were obtained during a visit to the families. The data were analyzed with independent t- test using SPSS, version 23 (IBM SPSS Statistics).
The study was approved by Medical Research Ethics Committee of Social Welfare and Rehabilitation Sciences University (registration code: IR.USWR.REC.1394.184) and was conducted in full compliance with the requirements of the Declaration of Helsinki regarding the use of human subjects. Also, after the completion of the research, the participants in the control group were provided with telenursing through phone consultation.
| Results|| |
The sample of caregivers included 62 men (40.78%) and 90 women (59.21%). Participant characteristics are presented in [Table 1]. According to [Table 1], there is no significant difference between groups in demographic data (caregiver age, duration of care, having help during care, etc.).
|Table 1: Comparison of variables between two intervention and control groups|
Click here to view
The means and standard deviations of the anxiety and depression scores in the pre-test and post-test are presented in [Table 2]. As shown in [Table 2], the mean scores for depression and anxiety in the post-test were lower in the intervention group compared with the control group.
|Table 2: Comparison of mean and standard deviation of anxiety and depression scores in the intervention and control groups before and after intervention|
Click here to view
Results of the independent t- test revealed a significant difference in the anxiety scores between groups in the post-test; however, the difference was not statistically significant for depression scores. Therefore, it can be concluded that nursing through telephone counseling has been effective only in reducing anxiety, but not depression.
| Discussion|| |
In this study, we sought to evaluate the effect of a low-cost method, namely, telenursing through phone consultation, on the depression and anxiety of caregivers of stroke patients. Caregivers of patients with chronic diseases report high level of perceived stress,, and strategies to relieve this stress, e.g., psychotherapy interventions, have limitations such as high cost, lack of insurance coverage, lack of experienced psychotherapists, and spending a lot of time. Our results indicate that providing telenursing through phone consultation can reduce the anxiety of caregivers, although it was found not effective in reducing depression.
The effect of telenursing on anxiety in the present study is consistent with the results of Chiang and Chen  and Bastani et al. In a study of the effectiveness of tele-nursing on exhaustion, stress control, and performance of family caregivers of patients with heart disease, Chiang and Chen showed that caregivers who received telenursing had less exhaustion, more control over stress, and better performance in the family after a month. In the study of Bastani et al., telenursing also led to reduced stress in elderly caregivers of patients with Alzheimer disease.
However, the lack of improvement in depression of caregivers in the present study is inconsistent with the study of Jahromi and colleagues  and may suggest that depression requires specialized counseling and psychotherapy. Jahromi et al. randomized 22 stroke patient caregivers who had cared at least for 6 months into two groups. Participants in the intervention group were put on a 3-month intervention including two home visits and 18 phone calls, while the control group only received monthly pamphlets containing health care information. Depression was assessed before and after the intervention. They found that caregivers who received telephone counseling had lower levels of depression at first 3 months (p < 0.01) and 12 months later (p < 0.05). The inconsistency between the findings of this study and the results obtained in Jahromi et al. might be a result of the intervention package in their study, which included two visits, delivering the problem-solving manual, and using a multi-disciplinary therapeutic team. These two studies were also different in terms of depression measurement time courses. It should be noted that the results of Jahromi et al. were close to the current study at 12 months post-intervention, suggesting a descending trend in caregivers' depression graph over time. Hence, it seems that more interventional measures are required to improve depression and maintain it over time.
Our finding that telenursing reduces anxiety is also consistent with the findings of Damirclick et al., although the results regarding depression are inconsistent. Damirclick and colleagues investigated the impact of multimedia nursing on anxiety and depression associated with coronary disease and showed that multimedia nursing was able to reduce the symptoms of depression and anxiety in their subjects. Of course, it should be noted that multimedia nursing is a way through which multimedia tools are used in nursing, while only a phone and an initial meeting were used in our study.
In short, the results of our study showed that telenursing with a simple device like telephone makes patient care somewhat easier for caregivers and decreases their daily anxiety during caregiving. However, caregivers who exhibit low mood symptoms, such as severe depression, require specialized counseling and psychotherapy services, and depression symptoms will not improve by simply providing them with necessary information on caring and communicating the patient as a nurse. Also, telenursing compensates for nursing shortages by reducing costs and increasing access to nursing counseling, and provides more satisfaction to nurses. Finally, it should be noted that this study faced some restrictions. Using self-report tools to measure anxiety and depression is associated with response bias, and purposive sampling method limits the generalizability of the findings.
| Conclusion|| |
Results of the present study showed that telenursing through a simple and low-cost device like telephone could make patient care easier for caregivers by providing them with the information on care, the disease, and other necessary information. In this regard, access to this information by telephone leads to decreased anxiety in daily caregiving. However, the results of this study showed that this method has no significant impact on depression of caregivers, and other methods are needed in this regard. Due to the limited use of other telenursing methods, e.g., video call, it is suggested that future studies use other methods as well as an allied therapeutic team. Also, it is recommended that patients with stroke be included in the interventions.
Authors wish to express their sincere gratitude to the authorities of education and research departments and ethics committee of University of Rehabilitation and Social Welfare, honorable manager of the treatment and respectable presidents of Mohammad Vase'ee Hospital, Sabzevar Welfare Administration, and all the families who patiently helped us during our research. The study has been approved by the University of Welfare and Rehabilitation Sciences at 921208011.
Financial support and sponsorship
The study was a part of a master's thesis that was conducted with the scientific support of Tehran University of Social Welfare and Rehabilitation, without financial support from the University of Tehran.
Conflicts of interest
Nothing to declare.
| References|| |
Kheirollahi N, Khatiban M, Oshvandi K, Alhani F, Feradmal J. The effect of family-centered empowerment intervention on perceived severity of threat in caregivers of patients with stroke: a semi experimental study. Scientific J Hamadan Nurs Midwifery Faculty 2014;22:73-82.
Wang W, Wang D, Liu H, Sun H, Jiang B, Ru X, et al
. Trend of declining stroke mortality in China: Reasons and analysis. Stroke Vasc Neurol 2017;2:132-9.
Mackay MT, Benedict SL, Lee KJ, deVeber GA, Ganesan V. Arterial ischemic stroke risk factors: The International Pediatric Stroke Study. Ann Neurol 2011;69:130-40.
McConeghy KW, Hughes L, Cook AM. A review of neuroprotection pharmacology and therapies in patients with acute traumatic brain injury. CNS Drugs 2012;26:613-36.
Pope HG Jr, Kanayama G, Siegel AJ, Hudson JI. Testosterone gel supplementation for men with refractory depression: A randomized, placebo-controlled trial. Am J Psychiatry 2003;160:105-11.
APA. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders : American Psychiatric Association; 2013.
Grabe HJ, Appel K, Mahler J, Schulz A, Spitzer C, Fenske K, et al
. Childhood maltreatment, the corticotropin-releasing hormone receptor gene and adult depression in the general population. Am J Med Genet B Neuropsychiatr Genet 2010;153:1483-93.
Kawaguchi T, Azuma M, Satoh M, Yoshioka Y. Tele-nursing in chronic conditions. Tele-nursing: Springer, London; 2011. p. 61-74.
Reierson IÅ SH, Bjørk IT. Nursing students' perspectives on tele-nursing in patient care after simulation. Clin Simulation Nurs 2015;11:244-50.
Ajalli A, Fallahi-Khoshknab M. Tele-nursing care in chronic patients: A systematic review. IJRN 2015;1:76-86.
Behzad Y BF, Haghani H. Effect of empowerment program with the telephone follow-up (tele-nursing) on self efficacy in self-care behaviors in hypertensive older adults. J Nurs Midwifery Urmia Univ Med Sci 2016;13:1004-15.
Bikmoradi A MB, Ghomeisi M, Roshanaei G. Impact of Tele-nursing on adherence to treatment plan in discharged patients after coronary artery bypass graft surgery: A quasi-experimental study in Iran. Int J Med Informatics 2016;86:43-8.
Tari Moradi AH. Survey of Depression, Anxiety and Physical Health of Caregivers to Elders with Aged and Brain Stroke. Alborz Univ Med J 2015;3:199-204.
Ward MM, Natafgi N. Systematic review of telemedicine applications in emergency rooms. Int J Med Informatics 2015;84:601-16.
St George BJ, Karabatsos G, Brimble R, Wilson A, Cullen M. How safe is tele-nursing from home? Collegian 2009;16:119-23.
Beck AT, Steer RA. Relationship between the Beck Anxiety Inventory and the Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale With anxious outpatients. J Anxiety Disord 1991;5:213-23.
Bal ZE, Solmaz M, Aker DA, Akin E, Kose S. Temperament and character dimensions of personality in patients with generalized anxiety disorder. J Mood Disord 2017;7:10-9.
Kaviani H, Mousavi AS. Psychometric properties of the Persian version of Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI). Tehran Univ Med J TUMS Publications 2008;66:136-40.
Balhara YPS, Verma R, Sharma S, Mathur S. A study of predictors of anxiety and depression among stroke patient–caregivers. J Mid-Life Health 2012;3:31-5.
] [Full text]
Bademli K. Anxiety and Depression in Caregivers of Chronic Mental Illness. J Depress Anxiety 2017;6:254.
Woelbert E. psychotherapy for mental illness in Europe. Publications Office of the European Union; 2015.
Chiang L-C, Chen W-C, Dai Y-T, Ho Y-L. The effectiveness of telehealth care on caregiver burden, mastery of stress, and family function among family caregivers of heart failure patients: A quasi-experimental study. Int J Nurs Stud 2012;49:1230-42.
Bastani F, Ghasemi E, Negarandeh R, Haghani H. General Self-Efficacy among Family's Female Caregiver of Elderly with Alzheimer's disease. J Hayat 2012;18:27-37.
Di Napoli M. Caplan's Stroke: A Clinical Approach. JAMA 2009;302:2600-1.
Jahromi MK, Javadpour S, Taheri L, Poorgholami F. Effect of Nurse-Led Telephone Follow ups (Tele-Nursing) on Depression, Anxiety and Stress in Hemodialysis Patients. Glob J Health Sci 2016;8:168.
Demircelik MB, Cakmak M, Nazli Y, Entepe E, Yigit D, Keklik M, et al
. Effects of multimedia nursing education on disease-related depression and anxiety in patients staying in a coronary intensive care unit. Appl Nurs Res 2016;29:5-8.
[Table 1], [Table 2]
|This article has been cited by|
||The impact of telehealth on self-management of patients with type 2 diabetes: A systematic review on interventional studies
| ||I.Made Cahyadi Agastiya, Endar Kurianto, Hanifati Akalili, Anggi Lukman Wicaksana |
| ||Diabetes & Metabolic Syndrome: Clinical Research & Reviews. 2022; : 102485 |
|[Pubmed] | [DOI]|
||The moderating role of caregiver preparedness on the relationship between depression and stroke-specific quality of life in stroke dyads: a longitudinal study
| ||Antonello Petrizzo, Karen S. Lyons, Davide Bartoli, Silvio Simeone, Rosaria Alvaro, Christopher S. Lee, Ercole Vellone, Gianluca Pucciarelli |
| ||European Journal of Cardiovascular Nursing. 2022; |
|[Pubmed] | [DOI]|
||Effect of Telenursing on Caregiver Burden of Care and Incidence of some Complications in Patients with Acute Stroke Discharged from Neurological Wards: A Randomized Control Trial
| ||Amir Hosseini, Nasrin Sharifi, Fereshteh Dehghanrad, Ehsan Sharifipour |
| ||Shiraz E-Medical Journal. 2022; 23(8) |
|[Pubmed] | [DOI]|
||The effect of a supportive home care program on caregiver burden with stroke patients in Iran: an experimental study
| ||Mansoureh Ashghali Farahani,Tahereh Najafi Ghezeljeh,Shima Haghani,Farshid Alazmani-Noodeh |
| ||BMC Health Services Research. 2021; 21(1) |
|[Pubmed] | [DOI]|
||Effectiveness of technology-based interventions on psychological morbidities, quality of life for informal caregivers of stroke survivors: A systematic review and meta-analysis
| ||Wei Jien Chin, Yun Ling Selina Ho, Sheena Ramazanu, Sakiko Itoh, Piyanee Klainin-Yobas, Xi Vivien Wu |
| ||Journal of Advanced Nursing. 2021; |
|[Pubmed] | [DOI]|
||Primary-care registered nurse telehealth policy implications
| ||Susan Watkins, Judy Neubrander |
| ||Journal of Telemedicine and Telecare. 2020; : 1357633X20 |
|[Pubmed] | [DOI]|
||Interventions for Psychological Health of Stroke Caregivers: A Systematic Review
| ||Anna Panzeri,Silvia Rossi Ferrario,Giulio Vidotto |
| ||Frontiers in Psychology. 2019; 10 |
|[Pubmed] | [DOI]|