|Year : 2019 | Volume
| Issue : 6 | Page : 457-461
Intention to leave the nursing profession and its relation with work climate and demographic characteristics
Fatemeh Sharififard1, Hamid Asayesh2, Hossein Rahmani-Anark3, Mostafa Qorbani4, Valiollah Akbari5, Hossein Jafarizadeh6
1 Department of Anesthesiology Nursing, School of Paramedic, Qom University of Medical Sciences, Qom, Iran
2 Medical Emergencies, School of Paramedic, Qom University of Medical Sciences, Qom, Iran
3 Department of Medical-Surgical Nursing, School of Nursing and Midwifery, Golestan University of Medical Sciences, Gorgan, Iran, Iran
4 Non-communicable Diseases Research Center, Alborz University of Medical Sciences, Kara; Endocrinology and Metabolism Research Center, Endocrinology and Metabolism Clinical Sciences Institute, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
5 Department of Psychiatry, School of Medicine, Qom University of Medical Sciences, Qom, Iran
6 Department of Nursing, School of Nursing and Midwifery, Urmia University of Medical Sciences, Urmia, Iran
|Date of Submission||08-Dec-2018|
|Date of Decision||11-Aug-2019|
|Date of Acceptance||24-Aug-2019|
|Date of Web Publication||7-Nov-2019|
Mr. Hamid Asayesh
Qadir Street, Pardis of Qom University of Medical Sciences, School of Paramedic, Qom
Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None
Background: Because of the importance of staff shortage in health systems, considering the intention to leave the job and its related factors among nurses is very important. The aim of this study was to identify the association between the intention to leave the nursing profession and work climate and demographic characteristics. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted among 206 nurses, by random sampling method from six hospitals (response rate = 92%). A set of self-administered questionnaires were applied for the evaluation of intention to leave and work climate. Results: The high level of intention to leave the profession was expressed by 23.70% of the participants; 25.10% of the participants had the moderate intention. Data analysis revealed that work climate, type of employment, marital status, and overtime working were significant predictors of nurses' intention to leave after controlling other independent variables (R2 = 0.10, p < 0.001). Conclusions: It was found that work climate and some demographic characteristics can be seen as indicators for intention to leave among nurses; therefore, considering the so-called variables is required. Further studies are needed to identify other aspects of the issue.
Keywords: Climate, intention, Iran, nursing
|How to cite this article:|
Sharififard F, Asayesh H, Rahmani-Anark H, Qorbani M, Akbari V, Jafarizadeh H. Intention to leave the nursing profession and its relation with work climate and demographic characteristics. Iranian J Nursing Midwifery Res 2019;24:457-61
|How to cite this URL:|
Sharififard F, Asayesh H, Rahmani-Anark H, Qorbani M, Akbari V, Jafarizadeh H. Intention to leave the nursing profession and its relation with work climate and demographic characteristics. Iranian J Nursing Midwifery Res [serial online] 2019 [cited 2023 Mar 23];24:457-61. Available from: https://www.ijnmrjournal.net/text.asp?2019/24/6/457/270562
| Introduction|| |
Nurses play an important role in providing healthcare services; they account for the largest number of workforce in most healthcare systems. Nowadays, the need for nursing has increased, and its shortage is considered a global problem., There is no official data about the shortage of nursing staff in Iran. According to numerous reports, the number of nurses does not provide even a half of the health care system's needs for the population of about 80 million. In addition, with the recent progresses and changes of healthcare systems, the need for more nurses will also increase. Accordingly, along with the existing shortage of nursing, the intention to leave this profession can also exacerbate the shortage; this shortage has negative effects on the quality of health cares. A recent study showed that providing an adequate number of nurses was associated with a reduction of unpleasant outcomes and death risk. The intention to leave is a process of thinking, planning, and decision about leaving a job or profession and does not always lead to actual leaving; it is one step before the actual leaving.,
A study showed that 80% of the nurses who left their profession intended to leave in the recent year. Individual and occupational factors are associated with this problem. For example, lower age and being male, as two demographic variables, were associated with the intention to leave.,,, In an Iranian study, it was revealed that only half of participant nurses (53%) had high intention to stay at nursing profession, and gender, age, and interest in nursing were the main predictors.
Occupational factors such as working in hospital, poor managerial support, lack of meaning for work, role conflicts, lack of opportunities for job promotion, job stress, and work–reward imbalance can be associated with the intention to leave.,, Many evidences such as Nantsupawat et al., Arslan et al., and El-Jardali et al. showed that specific work stressors, such as negative work climate, have a negative impact on healthcare staff and can reduce satisfaction, causing mental, and physical problems. Negative work climate is a management problem in the organization. “In recent years, work climate has been considered by health care systems as a powerful factor among individuals and team levels which can affect the performance of an organization. Reducing job stress and providing adequate staff will enhance job satisfaction which will encourage nurses to stay, and also improving work environments may delay this problem.,, Despite the fact that these variables have been studied in different works over the world, there are limited Iranian studies in this area. Therefore, the relationship between the nurses' work climate in the hospital and the intention to leave the profession has been addressed in this study. This study set to answer the following question: Can the nurses' perception of working climate predict the intention to leave their job?
| Materials and Methods|| |
A cross-sectional study was conducted from June to December 2016. The study population included the nurses who worked in six educational hospitals of Qom province, Iran. Eligible nurses (n = 207) were selected, using random sampling method. A list of all nurses, working in Qom educational hospitals, was prepared from nursing office of Qom University of Medical Sciences (QUMS). The participants were selected randomly from the list. Total sample size was calculated, considering the lowest correlation coefficient between work climate and the intention to leave [α = 0.05 (two-tailed), β = 0.1, r = 0.2]. The inclusion criteria were as following: having at least an associate degree in nursing, having at least 1 year experience of working in the present hospital, and the consent for participation. Samples with incomplete questionnaires and the history of psychiatric disorders (based on self-report question) were excluded from the study.
Data were collected, using a questionnaire. The questionnaire was divided into three sections. The first section included demographic information such as age, sex, marital status, job experience, educational level, position, type of employment, type of unit, working shift, and overtime working.
The second section included three items related to the intention to leave the job. The nurses were requested to rate their opinion, using a 7-point Likert scale (strongly disagree = 1 to strongly agree = 7); the points were subsequently calculated (ranging from 3 to 21 points). Scores for the intention to leave questionnaire were categorized in three groups: low, moderate, and high, according to lower, medium, and higher quartile of the score distribution. This questionnaire was developed by Kim et al. (1996) with a good reliability (α = 0.86). The validity and reliability of this instrument were approved by previous studies., Also, in an Iranian study, this questionnaire had an acceptable internal consistency (α = 0.86). In addition, in the current study, the reliability of this questionnaire was approved by Cronbach's alpha (α = 0.87) and test–retest method (r = 0.88).
The last section was work climate questionnaire. This questionnaire was originally developed by Gallup Institute, after a meta-analysis of 105,680 employees, working in 2,528 organizational units, where 531 units were in the healthcare ward. The work climate questionnaire contained 12 items: 1) expectations, 2) instruments and tools, 3) using best capabilities, 4) recognition, 5) appreciation, 6) encourage development, 7) opinion, 8) mission statement, 9) quality work, 10) best friend, 11) progress, and 12) learning and growing. These items were rated on a 7-point Likert scale, ranging from never to always, and the points were subsequently calculated (ranging from 12 to 84 points). This questionnaire was translated into Persian by an English language expert at first; then, the translated-version was compared with the original English version by another expert; after the correction of existing gaps, the final Persian version was provided. In a preliminary study among 30 nurses, the reliability of the questionnaire was confirmed by Cronbach's alpha (α = 0.83) and test–retest method (r = 0.81). For data gathering, self-report questionnaires were distributed among the nurses in each hospital. After the questionnaire completion, it was checked and collected by the researchers.
Data analysis was performed using SPSS Version 20 (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA). p value <0.05 was considered statistically significant. Descriptive statistics were conducted to summarize the demographic characteristics of the sample. Pearson correlation coefficients were calculated to determine the associations between work climate and the intention to leave the job. Multiple linear regression (stepwise) analyses were carried out to determine the percentage variance in the dependent variable (intention to leave) predicted by the independent variables (work climate, type of employment, marital status, and overtime).
This study was approved by the ethics committee of Qom University of Medical Sciences (IR.MUQ.REC.1394.138). Participation in the study was voluntary, and all participants expressed informed consent prior to the study. The questionnaire completion was anonymous, and the data were kept private. All necessary permissions were obtained from QUMS and hospitals administrators. Ethics committee approval has been obtained on 20 Sep 2016.
| Results|| |
In total, 207 nurses participated in the study. The majority of them were female (77.30%); the mean (SD) age was 32.20 (7.07), in a range of 22–52 years. The mean (SD) duration of working was 8.60 (7.45) years; and 91.8% worked in rotational shifts. More demographic data are shown in [Table 1]. The mean (SD) of the intention to leave the job was 8.34 (2.37). The high level of it was expressed by 23.70% of nurses, and also 25.10% of participants had moderate intention. The rest of them (51.20%) had the low intention.
A standard multiple regression was applied between the intention to leave as the dependent variable and the work climate and demographic variable. Independent variables were entered into the regression model stepwise; the results are shown in [Table 2] and [Table 3]. Altogether, 10% of the intention to leave among nurses was explained by work climate, type of employment, marital status, and overtime working [Table 2].
|Table 2: Stepwise multiple regression results with intent to leave as outcome variable|
Click here to view
|Table 3: Stepwise multiple regression results with intent to leave as outcome variable|
Click here to view
The largest beta value in this case was − 0.22, which is for work climate, followed by the type of employment (−0.17). This means that the work climate variable makes the strongest contribution to explaining the intention to leave, when the variance explained by all the other variables in the model was controlled. Other significant variables were types of employment, marital status, and overtime working. Its beta value was lower than the work climate value, indicating that it made less of a contribution [Table 3].
The correlation of work climate characteristic and the intention to leave a job is shown in [Table 4]. Expect for “recognition,“ “appreciation,“ “encourage development,“ and “learning and growing,“ the rest of work climate characteristics showed statistically significant negative correlations with the intention to leave their job.
|Table 4: Mean, standard deviation (SD), and correlations among work climate variables and Intent to leave|
Click here to view
| Discussion|| |
According to the results of this study, almost the half of the nurses who participated in the research intended to leave nursing, highly and moderately; there was a significant relation between work climate and the intention to leave their job. So, positive work climate was associated with the intention to retain in nursing. This problem is seen among most of health care staff, but this is very important among nurses due to their essential role in health care providing and serious shortage of staff recruitment. On the other hand, recruiting and training of new staff can waste a significant portion of a healthcare system budget. In two different Iranian studies, 48.7% and 53.2% of nurses intended to stay in nursing profession, which is almost consistent with our results., According to a study in Korean hospital, 31% of nurses intended to leave their job; also, there was a reverse and meaningful relation between positive working climate and the intention to leave the job. Among the nurses of that study, the presence of friendly atmosphere and standards subordination were two important subscales of work climate that were associated with the intention to leave. A study by Stone et al. among ICU nurses showed that work climate played an important role in determination of intention to leave; it has been also shown that increasing the salaries, regardless of work climate, could not reduce their problem. In the Stone et al. study, 50 percent of nurses also said they intended to leave their job the next year. A new study conducted among Singaporean migrant nurses showed that despite the high level of job satisfaction among them, the supportive work climate was predictor of retaining in nursing profession. Based on social exchange and leader–member theories, healthy interactions during the use of shared resources and information will provide enough support for individuals, and finally, reducing the work stress will increase the amount of intention to retain in a job. Similarly, a study among various healthcare professionals showed that the lack of support from hospital managers and the lack of communication between managers and staffs are the main reasons of intention to leave the job. On the other hand, constructive relationship between nurses and managers will create group cohesion and positive social climate; it can also support the staff by improving the teamwork and bring many benefits to the system., Creating and maintaining supportive relationships, participating in policy making and executive decisions making can be effective in improving the work climate and encouraging the nurses to stay at work. Several other studies also confirm our findings.,, Hoseini-Esfidarjani et al. found no relationship between anticipated turnover and healthy work environment. This study also had few limitations. First, the subjects were selected from one of the provinces of Iran. In order to increase the generalizability of the findings, a larger sample should be selected to represent the Iranian nursing community. Second, the actual leaving of nursing was not studied, hence further studies are recommended. Finally, except for the demographic variables, only one main variable (work climate) was studied. So, investigating other related variables can be effective in better understanding the phenomenon of intention to leave nursing.
| Conclusion|| |
Based on the study findings, the rate of intention to leave among nurses is high. Given the recent significant need to nursing staff in Iran, it is very important to pay attention to this issue. Also, the association between work climate and the intention to leave nursing revealed that paying attention to improving the work climate in different wards of hospital along with trying to increase other aspects of work life quality can be effective in encouraging nurses to retain in nursing profession; also, it can prevent the shortage of staff and affect the quality of health care.
This study has been approved by vice chancellor of Qom University of Medical Sciences with the code of 94630. Authors forward their sincere thanks to the team working with this project.
Financial support and sponsorship
Qom University of Medical Sciences, Qom, Iran
Conflict of interest
Nothing to declare.
| References|| |
Nardi DA, Gyurko CC. The global nursing faculty shortage: Status and solutions for change. J Nurs Scholarsh 2013;45:317-26.
Buchan J, O'may F, Dussault G. Nursing workforce policy and the economic crisis: A global overview. J Nurs Scholarsh 2013;45:298-307.
Zarea K, Negarandeh R, Dehghan-Nayeri N, Rezaei-Adaryani M. Nursing staff shortages and job satisfaction in Iran: Issues and challenges. Nurs Health Sci 2009;11:326-31.
Buerhaus PI, Auerbach DI, Staiger DO. The recent surge in nurse employment: Causes and implications. Health Aff 2009;28:w657-68.
Alilu L, Valizadeh L, Zamanzadeh V, Habibzadeh H, Gillespie M. A qualitative exploration of facilitators and inhibitors influencing nurses' intention to leave clinical nursing. Rev Esc Enferm USP 2016;50:982-9.
Aiken LH, Sloane DM, Bruyneel L, Van den Heede K, Sermeus W, Rn4cast Consortium. Nurses' reports of working conditions and hospital quality of care in 12 countries in Europe. Int J Nurs Stud 2013;50:143-53.
Twigg D, Duffield C, Thompson PL, Rapley P. The impact of nurses on patient morbidity and mortality-the need for a policy change in response to the nursing shortage. Aust Health Rev 2010;34:312-6.
Chao MC, Jou RC, Liao CC, Kuo CW. Workplace stress, job satisfaction, job performance, and turnover intention of health care workers in rural Taiwan. Asia Pac J Public Health 2015;27:NP1827-36.
Joo BKB. Organizational commitment for knowledge workers: The roles of perceived organizational learning culture, leader-member exchange quality, and turnover intention. Hum Resour Dev Rev 2010;21:69-85.
Hasselhorn H, Müller B, Tackenberg P. Nursing in Europe: Intention to leave the nursing profession. In: Hasselhorn HM, Mueller BH, Tackenberg P, editors. NEXT Scientific Report. 2005. p. 17-24.
Chan MF, Leong SM, Luk AL, Yeung SM, Van IK. Exploring the profiles of nurses' job satisfaction in Macau: Results of a cluster analysis. J Clin Nurs 2010;19:470-8.
de Oliveira DR, Griep RH, Portela LF, Rotenberg L. Intention to leave profession, psychosocial environment and self-rated health among registered nurses from large hospitals in Brazil: A cross-sectional study. BMC Health Serv Res 2017;17:21.
Flinkman M, Laine M, Leino-Kilpi H, Hasselhorn HM, Salanterä S. Explaining young registered Finnish nurses' intention to leave the profession: A questionnaire survey. Int J Nurs Stud 2008;45:727-39.
Masum AK, Azad MA, Hoque KE, Beh LS, Wanke P, Arslan Ö. Job satisfaction and intention to quit: An empirical analysis of nurses in Turkey. Peer J 2016;4:e1896.
Soudagar S, Rambod M, Beheshtipoor N. Intention to stay at nursing profession and its related factors. Sadra Med Sci J 2014;2:185-94.
Derycke H, Vlerick P, Burnay N, Decleire C, D'Hoore W, Hasselhorn HM, et al
. Impact of the effort–reward imbalance model on intent to leave among Belgian health care workers: A prospective study. J Occup Organ Psychol 2010;83:879-93.
Nantsupawat A, Kunaviktikul W, Nantsupawat R, Wichaikhum OA, Thienthong H, Poghosyan L. Effects of nurse work environment on job dissatisfaction, burnout, intention to leave. Int Nurs Rev 2017;64:91-8.
Arslan Yurumezoglu H, Kocaman G. Predictors of nurses' intentions to leave the organisation and the profession in Turkey. J Nurs Manag 2016;24:235-43.
El-Jardali F, Alameddine M, Dumit N, Dimassi H, Jamal D, Maalouf S. Nurses' work environment and intent to leave in Lebanese hospitals: Implications for policy and practice. Int J Nurs Stud 2011;48:204-14.
Leone C, Bruyneel L, Anderson JE, Murrells T, Dussault G, de Jesus ÉH, et al
. Work environment issues and intention-to-leave in Portuguese nurses: A cross-sectional study. Health Policy 2015;119:1584-92.
Olsen E, Bjaalid G, Mikkelsen A. Work climate and the mediating role of workplace bullying related to job performance, job satisfaction, and work ability: A study among hospital nurses. J Adv Nurs 2017;73:2709-19.
Kovner C, Brewer C, Greene W, Fairchild S. Understanding new registered nurses' intent to stay at their jobs. Nurs Econ2009;27:81-98.
Brewer C, Kovner C, Greene W, Tukov-Shuser M, Djukic M. Predictors of actual turnover in a national sample of newly licensed registered nurses employed in hospitals. J Adv Nurs 2012;68:521-38.
Moshiri K, Aghaiee N, Porsoltani Zarandi H, Ghorbani M. The relationship between perceived organizational justice and job burnout and intent to leave the profession of the staff in Tehran province directorate of youth and sports. J Res Sport Manage Motor Behav 2014;4:65-76.
Meeusen VC, van Dam K, Brown-Mahoney C, van Zundert AA, Knape HT. Work climate related to job satisfaction among Dutch nurse anesthetists. AANA J 2011;79:63-70.
Waldman JD, Kelly F, Aurora S, Smith HL. The shocking cost of turnover in health care. Health Care Manage Rev 2004;29:2-7.
Hesam M, Asayesh H, Roohi G, Shariati A, Nasiry H. Assessing the relationship between nurses' quality of work life and their intention to leave the nursing profession. Q J Nurs Manag 2012;1:28-36.
Hwang JI, Chang H. Work climate perception and turnover intention among Korean hospital staff. Int Nurs Rev 2009;56:73-80.
Stone PW, Mooney-Kane C, Larson EL, Pastor DK, Zwanziger J, Dick AW. Nurse working conditions, organizational climate, and intent to leave in ICUs: An instrumental variable approach. Health Serv Res 2007;42:1085-104.
Goh YS, Lopez V. Job satisfaction, work environment and intention to leave among migrant nurses working in a publicly funded tertiary hospital. J Nurs Manag 2016;24:893-901.
Wilson NA. Factors that affect job satisfaction and intention to leave of allied health professionals in a metropolitan hospital. Aust Health Rev 2015;39:290-4.
Rodwell J, Noblet A, Demir D, Steane P. The impact of the work conditions of allied health professionals on satisfaction, commitment and psychological distress. Health Care Manag Rev 2009;34:273-83.
Duffield CM, Roche MA, Blay N, Stasa H. Nursing unit managers, staff retention and the work environment. J Clin Nurs 2011;20:23-33.
Yousef HR, El-Maged NSA, El-Houfey AA. Organizational climate correlates nurses' intention to leave work. Public Policy Adm Res 2014;4:14-21.
Ohly S, Fritz C. Work characteristics, challenge appraisal, creativity, and proactive behavior: A multi-level study. J Organ Behav 2010;31:543-65.
Mrayyan MT. Predictors of hospitals' organizational climates and nurses' intent to stay in Jordanian hospitals. J Res Nurs 2008;13:220-33.
Engeda EH, Birhanu AM, Alene KA. Intent to stay in the nursing profession and associated factors among nurses working in Amhara Regional State Referral Hospitals, Ethiopia. BMC Nurs 2014;13:24.
Hoseini-Esfidarjani SS, Negarandeh R, Janani L, Mohammadnejad E, Ghasemi E. [The intention to turnoverand its relationship with healthy work environment among nursing staff]. Hayat J 2018;23:318-31.
[Table 1], [Table 2], [Table 3], [Table 4]
|This article has been cited by|
Intention to leave the profession and related factors in nurses: A cross-sectional study in
| ||Raheleh Maleki, Maryam janatolmakan, Masoud Fallahi, Bahare Andayeshgar, Alireza Khatony |
| ||Nursing Open. 2023; |
|[Pubmed] | [DOI]|
||Factors Contributing to Rationed Nursing Care in the Slovak Republic—A Secondary Analysis of Quantitative Data
| ||Dominika Kalánková, Daniela Bartonícková, Ewelina Kolarczyk, Katarína Žiaková, Agnieszka Mlynarska |
| ||International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2022; 19(2): 702 |
|[Pubmed] | [DOI]|
||Resilience, Occupational Stress, Job Satisfaction, and Intention to Leave the Organization among Nurses and Midwives during the COVID-19 Pandemic
| ||Andrzej Piotrowski, Ewa Sygit-Kowalkowska, Ole Boe, Samir Rawat |
| ||International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2022; 19(11): 6826 |
|[Pubmed] | [DOI]|
||Die MISSCARE-Austria-Studie – Teil III
| ||Ana Cartaxo, Inge Eberl, Hanna Mayer |
| ||HeilberufeScience. 2022; |
|[Pubmed] | [DOI]|
||An app for predicting nurse intention to quit the job using artificial neural networks (ANNs) in Microsoft Excel
| ||Hsiu-Chin Chen, Tsair-Wei Chien, Lifan Chen, Yu-Tsen Yeh, Shu-Ching Ma, Huan-Fang Lee |
| ||Medicine. 2022; 101(11) |
|[Pubmed] | [DOI]|
||Factors related to turnover intention among emergency department nurses in China: A nationwide cross-sectional study
| ||Nan Jiang, Xuan Zhou, Yanhong Gong, Mengge Tian, Yafei Wu, Jiali Zhang, Zhenyuan Chen, Jing Wang, Jianxiong Wu, Xiaoxv Yin, Chuanzhu Lv |
| ||Nursing in Critical Care. 2022; |
|[Pubmed] | [DOI]|
||Factors Influencing Turnover Intention among Nurses and Midwives in Ghana
| ||Angelina Boatemaa Boateng, Douglas Aninng Opoku, Nana Kwame Ayisi-Boateng, Alhassan Sulemana, Aliyu Mohammed, Joseph Osarfo, Jonathan N. Hogarh, Wanich Suksatan |
| ||Nursing Research and Practice. 2022; 2022: 1 |
|[Pubmed] | [DOI]|
||Work-related stress and intention to leave among midwives working in Swiss maternity hospitals – a cross-sectional study
| ||Karin Anne Peter,Barbara Meier-Kaeppeli,Jessica Pehlke-Milde,Susanne Grylka-Baeschlin |
| ||BMC Health Services Research. 2021; 21(1) |
|[Pubmed] | [DOI]|
||The Impact of the Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19) Pandemic on Nurses’ Turnover Intention: An Integrative Review
| ||Rawaih Falatah |
| ||Nursing Reports. 2021; 11(4): 787 |
|[Pubmed] | [DOI]|
||Identification of the components for investigation of the psychological strength of nursing applicants: A qualitative study
| ||Farzaneh Bagheriyeh,Akram Ghahramanian,Leila Valizadeh,Vahid Zamanzadeh,Geoffrey Dickens |
| ||Nursing Open. 2021; |
|[Pubmed] | [DOI]|