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  Citation statistics : Table of Contents
   2018| July-August  | Volume 23 | Issue 4  
    Online since June 25, 2018

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Effect of hope therapy on the mood status of patients with diabetes
Firouz KhalediSardashti, Zahra Ghazavi, Farshad Keshani, Mojtaba Smaeilzadeh
July-August 2018, 23(4):281-286
DOI:10.4103/ijnmr.IJNMR_36_16  PMID:30034488
Background: Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a chronic disease which imposes high costs on patients and society and results in complications in patients. One of these complications includes issues related to mood. Thus, the present study was conducted with the aim to determine the effect of hope therapy on the mood status of patients with DM. Materials and Methods: This quasi-experimental study was performed with two groups in three stages in the summer of 2015 on 38 individuals. The study population consisted of all individuals with DM who referred to and had a medical record at Shahid Asghar Shabani Clinic (Isfahan, Iran) affiliated with the social security organization. From among the 350 individuals with medical records at the clinic, 38 who had the inclusion criteria were selected through simple random sampling. Participants were randomly assigned to control (n = 19) and experimental (n = 19) groups. The Zung Self-Rating Depression Scale was completed by both groups before, after, and 1 month after the intervention. Results: There was a significant difference in the mean scores of depression in the intervention group before (F = 19.48, p = 0.001), immediately after (t = 3.30, p = 0.002), and 1 month after the intervention (t = 3.09, p = 0.004), whereas there was no significant difference in the mean scores of depression before, immediately after, and 1 month after the intervention in the control group. Conclusions: The obtained results showed that hope therapy can reduce depression in patients with DM.
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Effect of telenursing on levels of depression and anxiety in caregivers of patients with stroke: A randomized clinical trial
Maryam Goudarzian, Masoud Fallahi-Khoshknab, Asghar Dalvandi, Ahmad Delbari, Akbar Biglarian
July-August 2018, 23(4):248-252
DOI:10.4103/ijnmr.IJNMR_242_16  PMID:30034482
Background: Telenursing is a low-cost, highly accessible method that can lead to increased awareness on the principles of care, and may eventually help reduce the stress experienced by caregivers of patients with stroke. The present study aimed to investigate the effect of telenursing through phone consultation on the levels of depression and anxiety in family caregivers of patients with stroke. Materials and Methods: This was a randomized clinical trial including 152 caregivers of stroke patients discharged from Mohammad Vase'ee Hospital in Sabzevar in 2016. Participants were recruited through purposive sampling method and were randomly assigned to control (n = 76) and intervention (n = 76) groups. The intervention consisted of 32 sessions of phone consultation. Research tools included demographic characteristics form, needs assessment questionnaire, Beck Depression Inventory, and Beck Anxiety Inventory. Data were analyzed with independent t test using SPSS, version 23. Results: Mean (SD) post-intervention anxiety scores for the intervention and the control group were statistically significant (t = 3.51, p = 0.001). However, the difference in mean depression scores after intervention was not significant (p = 0.70). Conclusions: Telenursing can be employed to facilitate the care of chronic patients as well as increase the psychological well-being of the caregivers through providing practical and specialized information.
  7 4,317 794
The relationship between perception of social support and fatigue in patients with cancer
Leila Mardanian-Dehkordi, LeilaSadat Kahangi
July-August 2018, 23(4):261-266
DOI:10.4103/ijnmr.IJNMR_63_17  PMID:30034484
Background: Fatigue is one of the most common issues related to cancer. Social support has direct effects on health status and coping with illness. This study investigated the relationship between the perception of social support and fatigue in patients with cancer. Materials and Methods: This descriptive/correlational study was conducted in Omid Hospital in Isfahan, Iran in 2014. One hundred and twenty-five cancer patients receiving chemotherapy were included in the study. Study participants were selected using consecutive sampling. Data were collected using the Cancer Fatigue Scale (CFS), Perceived Social Support Scale, and a demographic characteristics questionnaire. The collected data were analyzed using descriptive and analytical statistical tests in SPSS software. Results: Mean (SD) of patients' fatigue and perceived social support scores were 40.63 (11.59) out of 100 and 49.33 (7.85) out of 100, respectively. The Pearson correlation coefficient showed an inverse relationship between fatigue and social support, however, this relationship was not significant. Multiple regression test was used to detect which dimension of perceived social support was a better predictor of the reduction in fatigue score. This test showed that the best predictor was informational support (B = −0.35, p = 0.004). Conclusions: Results showed a negative relationship between fatigue and perceived social support in cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy. Therefore, social support interventions can help reduce fatigue.
  7 3,064 345
The effect of spiritual care on the body image of patients undergoing amputation due to type 2 diabetes: A randomized clinical trial
Malihe Imeni, Fakhri Sabouhi, Parvaneh Abazari, Bijan Iraj
July-August 2018, 23(4):322-326
DOI:10.4103/ijnmr.IJNMR_113_15  PMID:30034495
Background: Body image, as an important factor in quality of life (QOL) satisfaction, in amputee patients is strongly affected by amputation, which can put the patient at risk of psychological disorders such as depression. Hence, this study was conducted to investigate the effect of spiritual care on body image in patients with type 2 diabetes-related amputation. Materials and Methods: In this study, an experimental pretest-posttest design with two groups was used. A total of 54 participants (Males = 41, Females = 13) aged between 40 and 72 who had diabetes-related amputation participated in the study. The participants were randomly assigned to the meditation and control group. For the experimental group, three sessions of meditation, and for control group, three sessions regarding prevention of diabetic foot ulcer were conducted. The participants in the experimental group were asked to perform meditation exercises for a month. The data was collected via Amputee Body Image Scale before and 4 weeks after the intervention. Results: There were no significant differences between groups on demographic variables. After intervention, the meditation group showed lower levels of body image disturbance compared with the control group, which was significant (t=3.41, p = 0.001). Conclusions: It can be concluded that meditation can improve body image in patients with diabetes-related amputation. In addition, because of no side effects and high acceptance of spiritual care, this method can be used as a way to improve the condition of patients.
  7 4,148 528
The barriers and challenges of applying new strategies in the clinical evaluation of nursing students from the viewpoints of clinical teachers
Camellia Torabizadeh, Fariba Ghodsbin, Sorur Javanmardifard, Fatemeh Shirazi, Mehdi Amirkhani, Mostafa Bijani
July-August 2018, 23(4):305-310
DOI:10.4103/ijnmr.IJNMR_17_17  PMID:30034492
Background: Numerous studies have emphasized the use of new approaches in clinical evaluation. However, there are some challenges and barriers to applying these new approaches. The aim of the present study was to investigate the barriers and challenges of applying new strategies in the clinical evaluation of nursing students from the viewpoints of clinical teachers. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted among 151 clinical teachers. A researcher-made questionnaire was used to collect data. The questionnaire was validated using library references and a variety of texts, as well as thorough consulting with 15 clinical teachers. The questionnaire's reliability was approved with a Cronbach's alpha of 78%. Data analysis was conducted using Pearson's correlation coefficient, one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA), and descriptive statistics in SPSS software. Results: The highest score was related to the “students and clinical environment” domain [24.05 (8.10)], and the lowest to the “facilities” domain [13.31 (1.50)]. One-way ANOVA results showed a significant relationship between the mean scores of academic degree and the two domains of “tests” (F = 9.66, p < 0.001) and “facilities” (F = 8.26, p < 0.001). Conclusions: The implementation of a new approach for evaluating clinical training requires infrastructure and overcoming executive obstacles. Educating students and clinical teachers on new evaluation methods requires their familiarity with the implementation process as well as encouragement and support by their educational institution and administrators.
  5 2,823 301
Effectiveness of postpartum homecare program as a new method on mothers' knowledge about the health of the mother and the infant
Fatemeh Mokhtari, Parvin Bahadoran, Zahra Baghersad
July-August 2018, 23(4):316-321
DOI:10.4103/Ijnmr.ijnmr_48_17  PMID:30034494
Background: Reduced maternal mortality due to pregnancy and delivery is one of the priorities of reproductive health programs of World Health Organization. Benefiting from appropriate social support, such as receiving homecare, has an important role in mothers' adaptation and health. Lack of access to comprehensive and desirable health services is the most important barrier to improvement of maternal health. In this study, the effect of postpartum homecare on mother's knowledge about maternal and child health is evaluated. Materials and Methods: This study was two-group field trial which was conducted in 2015 on 62 postpartum mothers who were selected randomly in Shahid Beheshti Hospital of Isfahan. Mothers and infants of the intervention (experimental) groups were first visited at the hospital and then received two visits at home. The control group received routine postpartum care. A researcher-designed questionnaire was used for data collection. Data analysis was conducted using SPSS18 and independent, paired t-test, and Chi-square tests. Results: Comparing the demographic characteristics between both groups revealed no significant difference. After the intervention mothers' knowledge about maternal (t = 4.26; p < 0.001) and child (t = 3.19; p = 0.003) health showed a significant difference between the intervention (experimental) and control groups. Conclusions: Performance of postpartum homecare as a new and useful method in the health system of Iran can increase mothers' knowledge about their own health and their children, enhance their ability to adapt with the postpartum period, and improve the health level of vulnerable populations.
  3 3,854 452
“Immersion in an ocean of psychological tension:” The voices of mothers with children undergoing hemodialysis
Tayebeh Pourghaznein, Abbas Heydari, ZahraSadat Manzari, Najmeh ValizadehZare
July-August 2018, 23(4):253-260
DOI:10.4103/ijnmr.IJNMR_156_17  PMID:30034483
Background: Compared with other renal replacement therapies, hemodialysis treatment can impose restrictions on children with chronic renal failure and their mothers. Such pediatric illness can also lead to negative effects on mothers' physical and mental health. Knowledge about mothers' experiences can aid medical teams to support mothers in playing their roles as care managers. Providing supports to mothers can exert significant effects on mothers' health status and indirectly improve patient outcomes and whole family functioning. This study was aimed at understanding the meanings of care for children undergoing hemodialysis based on mothers' lived experiences. Materials and Methods: This study is a qualitative research using hermeneutic phenomenology. A total of 17 interviews were conducted with 11 mothers of children undergoing hemodialysis. The interview sessions were recorded and transcribed, after which the data were analyzed using van Manen's methodology. Results: The main themes identified in this study was “immersion in an ocean of psychological tension,” which suggests that the mothers of the children undergoing hemodialysis are overwhelmed by the numerous psychological pressures that they encounter during their children's treatment. This theme was constituted by the subthemes “bewilderment between hope and despair,” “endless concerns,” “agony and sorrow,” and “a sense of being ignored.” Conclusions: The findings indicated the need to implement multilateral support measures that align with the educational, emotional–psychological, and financial needs of mothers with children receiving hemodialysis treatment. Such measures should be taken with the participation of multidisciplinary teams.
  3 2,997 325
The effect of social support skill-training group intervention on perceived social support in veterans with posttraumatic stress disorder
Masoud Sirati-Nir, Morteza Khaghanizade, Abolfazl Rahimi, Mohammad Khazaei, Fataneh Ghadirian
July-August 2018, 23(4):272-276
DOI:10.4103/ijnmr.IJNMR_165_16  PMID:30034486
Background: Traumatic events related to war have long effects on psychiatric psychopathologies. From these disturbing conditions, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is considered to be the most characteristic feature of psychiatric traumatic experience. The current study was designed to assess the effect of two social support skill-training group interventions on perceived social support in veterans with PTSD. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted with the clinical trial method. According to the inclusion criteria, 60 of 367 veterans with PTSD were selected and randomly allocated into two intervention groups and a control group. The two training programs on social support skills consisting of three sessions, each being 1.5–2 h, were held weekly for 3 weeks. The Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support was filled by samples before and 6 weeks after intervention. The data were analyzed by descriptive and analytical statistics using PASW Statistics 18. Results: The ANOVA results showed that after intervention, there were significant differences in perceived social support between intervention groups and control group (F = 1.06, p = 0.001), but there was no significant difference between intervention groups by t-test (t = 28.05, p < 0.10). The paired t-test showed a significant difference in all subscale scores of perceived social support between two intervention groups before and after intervention (p < 0.05). Conclusions: The results of the current study agreed with the positive effects of social support skill training on perceived social support in veterans with PTSD. It is suggested that these training courses should be included in the community re-entry programs of veterans with PTSD.
  3 2,756 294
Exploring self-care needs of pregnant women with gingivitis: A qualitative study in Iran
Babak Nemat-Shahrbabaki, Arezoo Fallahi, Sina Valiee, Mozhdeh Zarei, Parisa Fallahi
July-August 2018, 23(4):292-297
DOI:10.4103/ijnmr.IJNMR_163_17  PMID:30034490
Background: Oral self-care behaviors are not satisfactory among pregnant women; incidence of gingivitis is high in them and training programs have slightly improved their gingivitis. This study was aimed to explore self-care needs of pregnant women suffering from gingival inflammation. Materials and Methods: This study was carried out in Sanandaj, west of Iran, in 2017. Twenty pregnant women with gingivitis were included in the study. Data were collected via semi-structured individual and group interviews and note-taking, and were analyzed by conventional content analysis. To confirm the accuracy and strength of the data, credibility, confirmability, and transferability components were taken into account. Results: The results of data analysis yielded six major categories, including “organizational support,” “dentist's professional competence,” “increasing perceived threat,” “increasing self-efficacy,” “increasing perceived benefits,” and “culture-making.” Increased self-efficacy was the most important concern of pregnant women. Conclusions: The findings showed that self-care behaviors to prevent gingivitis in pregnant women are influenced by various factors. It is essential to consider the cooperation of the media and organizations, support of society, and attention of families and authorities to oral health education and disease prevention among women.
  2 3,125 268
Comparing the effects of progressive muscle relaxation and physical activity on pregnant women's general health
Bita Sadeghi, Masoud Sirati-Nir, Zahra Hajimini, Abbas Ebadi, Matin Ali-Asgari
July-August 2018, 23(4):298-304
DOI:10.4103/ijnmr.IJNMR_54_17  PMID:30034491
Background: Pregnancy is important because maternal health and well-being directly affects another person's life. This study aimed to compare the effects of progressive muscle relaxation (PMR) and physical activity (PA) on the general health of pregnant women. Materials and Methods: This randomized clinical trial was conducted among 96 primiparous women enrolled in a prenatal clinic in Tehran (Iran) between May 3, 2013 and August 7, 2013. The participants were selected through convenience sampling over 3 weeks and randomly assigned to the PMR, PA, and control groups, comprising 32 participants each. Six participants did not complete the follow-up measurement (N = 90). The PMR group underwent three sessions of 1.5–2 h in theoretical and practical training, and in the PMR group, training was given in groups of three to four persons. Both groups performed exercises at home for 8 weeks and recorded them in daily report sheets. The general health of all three groups was assessed before and after intervention by using the General Health Questionnaire-28. Results: Differences in the mean (SD) general health scores obtained before and after intervention in the PMR, PA, and control groups were 15.63 (5.73), 19.11 (7.79), and 8.27 (2.14), respectively. One-way analysis of variance test showed a significant difference between the three groups (F = 28.10; p < 0.001). Conclusions: As the study results confirm the positive effects of PMR and PA on the subscales of the general health of pregnant women, the two techniques are recommended to promote the general health of pregnant women.
  2 2,532 278
The portfolio as a tool for mentoring in nursing students: A scoping review
Mohsen Mollahadi, Seyyed-Mohammad Khademolhoseini, Jamileh Mokhtari-Nouri, Morteza Khaghanizadeh
July-August 2018, 23(4):241-247
DOI:10.4103/ijnmr.IJNMR_195_17  PMID:30034481
Background: One of the processes leading to education and evaluation promotion in nursing is mentoring. Moreover, using a portfolio leads to promotion of the mentoring process. Due to the importance of mentoring in nursing, its strengthening by the portfolio, the weakness of mentoring in nursing, and the lack of widespread use of portfolio in nursing education, the aim of this study was to determine portfolio content, which can help the mentoring performance. Materials and Methods: The present scoping review study was conducted in 2017. Articles were searched using the keywords portfolio, mentoring, nursing education, logbook, teaching, learning, nursing, education, and evaluation. The search was conducted in SID, IranMedex, IranDoc, Magiran, PubMed, Google Scholar, Scopus, Web of Science, and ScienceDirect databases. Studies published in Persian and English from 1997 to 2017 were reviewed. The studies were extracted based on the inclusion and exclusion criteria. Results: Of the 1070 articles searched, 6 were extracted for the final assessment. The results indicated that a portfolio consists of a title page, content list, introduction, record of experience, mentor's feedback and comments, self-evaluation, and educational activities. Furthermore, nursing process is required to help conduct mentoring among nursing students. Conclusions: Recording experiences, feedback, etc., in the portfolios of nursing students can be helpful in conducting mentoring for student's education. It is suggested that educational managers perform mentoring in educational environments using the contents suggested in this study.
  2 6,305 839
A comparative study of the effects of skin contact and kangaroo care on mother's anxiety
Mohadese Adeli, Somayeh Alirezaei
July-August 2018, 23(4):327-328
DOI:10.4103/ijnmr.IJNMR_100_17  PMID:30034496
Background: The aim of the study was to compare of mother and newborns abdominal contact and Kangaroo skin on mother's anxiety. Materials and Methods: This study is a single-blind randomized control trial in 2015. Questionnaire about Demographic and Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) was completed for two groups. Results: There was no significant difference in maternal anxiety between kangaroo care and abdominal contact by Mann-Whitney test immediately after birth (Z = -1.33, p = 0.42) and after 2 months (Z = -1.47, p = 0.86). Conclusions: The effect of kangaroo contact on mother's anxiety was similar to abdominal contact and if the kangaroo care is done for a short period of time, it will not change maternal anxiety.
  2 2,731 343
Effect of a care plan on the quality of life of the patients with atrial fibrillation
Asghar Khalifehzadeh-Esfahani, Ali Amirzadeh, Jafar Golshahi
July-August 2018, 23(4):277-280
DOI:10.4103/ijnmr.IJNMR_35_16  PMID:30034487
Background: Atrial fibrillation is one of the most common cardiac arrhythmia affecting patients “quality of life (QoL).” With regard to limited number of interventional studies on such patients' QoL, the present study aimed to define the effect of a care plan on the QoL of the patients, hospitalized in coronary care unit (CCU), with atrial fibrillation. Materials and Methods: This is a randomized two-group clinical trial that was conducted on 50 patients, diagnosed with atrial fibrillation and hospitalized in CCU. Fifty patients were selected through convenient sampling and were randomly assigned to study (n = 25) and control (n = 25) groups. Study group underwent an already designed care plan, while the control group received just routine care. QoL was measured by Short Form (SF-36) QoL questionnaire before and one month after intervention. Data were analyzed by t-test through Statistical Package for the Social Sciences. Results: Independent t-test showed a significant difference in mean scores of overall QoL and all of its domains (p < 0.05), except for general health (t = 1.23, p = 0.22) and social function (t = 1.70, p = 0.09). The t-test showed a significant difference in mean (SD) scores of overall QoL in study [51.57 (14.57)] and control [41.80 (18.51)] groups after intervention (t = 2.07, p = 0.04). Conclusions: The results showed that an already designed care plan can result in improvement of QoL in patients with atrial fibrillation. In the present study, a standard care plan was administrated for the patients with atrial fibrillation. Through administration of care plans in clinical settings, nurses' clinical and effective role can be improved.
  1 2,458 265
The effects of motivational interviewing on the health status of patients undergoing hemodialysis
Alireza Dashtidehkordi, Nahid Shahgholian, Jahangir Maghsoudi, Jaleh Sadeghian
July-August 2018, 23(4):287-291
DOI:10.4103/ijnmr.IJNMR_75_17  PMID:30034489
Background: Patients undergoing hemodialysis are exposed to a wide range of physical, psychological, and social problems. One of the most important strategies for health promotion in patients is motivational interviewing. This study investigated the effect of motivational interviewing on the health status of patients undergoing hemodialysis. Materials and Methods: This single-blind, parallel, randomized, clinical trial was conducted on 57 patients undergoing hemodialysis who referred to hemodialysis centers of Alzahra and Amin Hospitals, Isfahan, Iran. The participants were selected through quota sampling method and were assigned to the experimental and control groups. The experimental group received five sessions of motivational interviewing, while the control group received five sessions of group discussion about their disease. The General Health Questionnaire (GHQ) was completed by the participants before and after the intervention. Independent t-test, paired-sample t-test, and Mann–Whitney, Chi-square, and Fisher's exact tests were used to analyze the collected data. In this study, the level of significance was 0.05. Results: Before the intervention, there was no significant difference between the mean scores of general health of the two groups (t = 0.48, p = 0.631). However, one week after the intervention, the mean score of general health in the intervention group was significantly lower than that of the control group (t = 3.12, p = 0.003). Conclusions: It can be concluded that motivational interviewing effectively improved the general health of patients undergoing hemodialysis, and using such interventions in these patients is recommended.
  1 5,072 264
Thematic analysis of management behaviors of civilian nurses in Iran-Iraq War 1980–1988: A historical research
Mohammadreza Firouzkouhi, Ali Zargham-Boroujeni, Abdolghani Abdollahimohammad
July-August 2018, 23(4):267-271
DOI:10.4103/ijnmr.IJNMR_111_17  PMID:30034485
Background: One of the most important roles of nurses in the war was the application of management interventions, which led to provide better services for the wounded soldiers. The purpose of this study was to explore the Management behaviors of civilian nurses in the Iran-Iraq war. Materials and Methods: The historical research methodology and thematic analysis using in-depth interviews were applied to gather data. This study was conducted in 2010-2012 in five big cities of Iran, and involved 18 male nurses who were selected by purposeful sampling method. Results: The interviews of the nurses revealed a main category as the management behaviors of the nurses in the war. Six subcategories were obtained, namely call up for the war, establishing emergency teams, managing the therapeutic units, managerial innovation during war operations, teamwork and variety of roles of nurses in the war. Conclusions: This study demonstrated how the nurses adapted to the harsh a situation without any previous experience on management in crises such as wars and increased medical treatment facilities outcome using management principles.
  - 2,773 297
Psychosocial factors related to dietary habits in women undergoing preconception care
Zahra Karami, Nafisehsadat Nekuei, Ashraf Kazemi, Zamzam Paknahad
July-August 2018, 23(4):311-315
DOI:10.4103/ijnmr.IJNMR_22_17  PMID:30034493
Background: Correct health behaviors such as dietary habits before pregnancy ensure desired pregnancy outcomes. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between psychosocial factors and dietary habits using social cognitive theory (SCT) in women undergoing preconception care (PCC). Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted among 120 women from October to December 2015 in health centres in Isfahan, Iran. Using a researcher-made questionnaire, the researcher conducted stratified random sampling and convenience sampling for selecting health centres and participants, respectively. For data analysis, the researcher applied the Pearson, Spearman's, and linear regression test in SPSS software. Results: The results showed that perceived support from healthcare personnel and outcome expectations are not associated with any of the components of dietary habits. Access to healthy food was inversely correlated with incorrect dietary habits (β = −0.19, p = 0.039) and had a direct correlation with daily consumption of fruits (β = 0.27, p = 0.006). Perceived support from the spouse had a direct correlation with desired dietary habits (β = 0.27, p = 0.006). Self-efficacy was inversely correlated with incorrect dietary habits (β = −0.22, p = 0.011) and had a direct relationship with desired dietary habits (β = 0.25, p = 0.004). Conclusions: To improve the nutritional status of women prior to pregnancy, interventions must be focused on increasing women's access to healthy food and their self-efficacy in maintaining a healthy diet.
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